Aboriginal culture is one of the oldest cultures in the world, making the art they produce one of the oldest examples of cultural artistic expression in the world. The first of these that have been found by archaeologists include carvings in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, and it is believed that these carvings are up to 60,000 years old. Although to some Aboriginal art might (mistakenly) seem simple on the surface, it is anything but. Aboriginal art is actually made up of a complex assortment of symbols, iconography and rules that artists must adhere to. In this article, we take a look at a few of the rules that apply to Aboriginal art to give you an idea of its complexity.

Aboriginal art basics

To start with, it should be pointed out from the outset that Aboriginal art can only be produced by Aboriginal people. In the eyes of Aboriginal tribes, only people with Aboriginal ancestry have the authority to create contemporary Indigenous art. The art that is produced will also be heavily influenced by the location of the tribe in Australia, as certain techniques are more common in some areas than others. These techniques are not always clear to non-indigenous people, and sometimes this is actually by design – traditionally, dots were used to hide meanings in art from non-indigenous people during white settlement, as it was believed that there was potential to steal knowledge from Indigenous culture. The dot paintings we see today still use this technique, and it is arguably the most recognisable style that is still regularly used. But, although these dots are highly recognisable, Aboriginal art certainly doesn’t need to include dots to be classed as Aboriginal art. Only certain tribes are permitted to use dots, as the dots are related to their particular tribe.

Approaches to Indigenous art

Aboriginal art, unlike many prevailing Western approaches to art, is not simply to demonstrate beautiful or interesting aesthetic images. Instead, the paintings in Aboriginal culture are always telling a story, so the art is often about an artist’s own life, the experiences of their tribe, or life-changing topics like the Stolen Generation. With this story painting in mind, it’s also very important to note that Aboriginal artists can’t actually paint whatever story they’d like – what they paint is generally from their own lineage, and if they decide to paint a story from another tribe’s lineage, they must ask for permission before they do so. This is request is necessary in order to demonstrate respect, but for the most part artists will paint things related to the stories and artistic techniques relevant to their own tribe. As for the meaning in this art, it can also vary wildly depending on where it came from – each tribe uses a specific set of symbols to represent different meanings, such as people, waterholes and tools like digging sticks.

Appreciating Aboriginal art more

As Aboriginal culture doesn’t have a written language, the art they produced can be considered the best way to absorb the different aspects of the culture and learn more about the people. The complexity and sheer variety of Aboriginal art and painting are quite impressive and allow the audience – whether Indigenous or non-Indigenous – to develop an understanding of particular tribes and the areas they live in within Australia.

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From gazing upon celebrities at the famous Rodeo Drive to gaping at real stars at the Griffith Observatory, there is plenty to do in Los Angeles. You may want to visit the city’s essential museums, explore the many bounties of Silver Lake, enjoy beach fun in Santa Monica, etc. The best thing about this pulsating city is that there are numerous things to get involved in, regardless of your age or interests. How would you like to start your vacation in Los Angeles with these unmissable things to do while you are here?

  1. Get going to Venice Beach

Venice Beach, the kooky center of California, attracts more mainstream tourists than any other place in LA with its eccentric spirit. Visit Abbot Kinney for its posh appeals even while you enjoy the boardwalk and its skateboarders, pamphleteers and body builders. The delicacies at Figtree’s Café as well as the inviting shelves of Small World Books are other draws that cannot be missed.

  1. Starry nights at Hollywood

You are never too far away from Hollywood celebrities in LA. Catch smart glimpses of stardust as you visit the Hollywood Walk of Fame; here, you will find over 2,400 figures belonging to the entertainment world immortalized in pink tinted terrazzo complete with symbolic gold lettering. The Chinese Theatre happens to be another must-visit venue for its hand and footprints galore. Though the glitz and glamor may not be up to your expectations, it is certainly worth a look. The best part is you can always seek for a travel companion via Zooey Zara.

  1. Masterpiece Studying

The Getty Center, with its flurry of generous endowments and alluring hilltop campus, is the envy of other museums around the world. It flaunts impressive works of art, culture and history. Here, you will get to see several paintings by Rubens along with a sprinkling of Impressionists of the likes of Monet, Renoir, Van Gogh and Cézanne. You may want to visit the museum’s many French decorative arts, its expanding photography collection, and the masterpieces installed in the sculpture garden.

  1. Shop till you Drop on Rodeo Drive

Have you been thinking of Julia Roberts all that she did while shopping on the coveted Rodeo Drive in the blockbuster Pretty Woman? Packed with a never-ending list of high-end designer showrooms, window-shopping as well as serious buys is inevitable at this thriving area in Los Angeles. Just a small distance away is the oft-visited Anderson Court, a huge shopping mall brought into being by Frank Lloyd Wright.

  1. Walking tour of Los Angeles

The walking tour of Los Angeles’ will help you experience its urban architectural heritage in more ways than one. The Conservancy walking tour will bring you closer to the city’s top sights and beautiful buildings. Be it for the Downtown’s historic theaters or the city’s many Art Deco buildings, these tours are very popular with those who love being on their feet across the day.

What’s more? Ask for the Jurassic experience, enjoy Los Angeles’ Museum Row, wise up at the famous Griffith Observatory, come closer to the charm of Mickey and Minnie Mouse at Disneyland, and so forth. Surely, there’s a lot to do and see in Los Angeles!

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Glass surrounds us, providing us protection from wind and rain in our homes or cars while allowing us to see what surrounds us outside. There are countless items and things made from glass around the world, and more are created every day.

Glass is made from sand, but we can see through it. It is strong enough to protect us, yet can shatter easily. Despite the fact that glass is a hard surface, it is actually more of a liquid, known as an amorphous solid by scientists. Glass is easy to shape when it is softened and resistant to heat when it sets.

Glass is also completely recyclable, making it one of the most Earth-friendly substances. The versatility of glass allows it to be used in a multitude of ways, some of which you may not even realize.


Today, many bricks used for building materials contain recycled glass, but this process has been happening for centuries. As far back as ancient Asia, glass was added to clay for density as well as translucency. Irish Belleek pottery has as much as 50 percent glass and, in the 16th century, Italian Medici porcelains had a significant amount of glass as well. Using glass in bricks reduces the amount of concrete needed as part of the manufacturing process. A reduction of one ton of cement eliminates a significant amount of carbon dioxide from the environment.

Jewelry items made from glass

Many different types of glass are used to create jewelry and it may surprise you to know how many different types of jewelry are actually glass. Glass jewelry isn’t fragile and may not even be delicate. Glass jewelry is made by melting and forming glass into shapes or by layering small pieces of glass together to achieve a pattern. Sea glass is growing in popularity for use in jewelry.

Also known as beach glass, sea glass is formed when a broken piece of glass ends up in the sea. It is then tumbled by waves and sand until the edges are smoothed and the surface becomes opaque. The stunning colors and unique shapes allow artisans to create stunning, one-of-a-kind jewelry.

Recreational Things Made From Glass

Although it isn’t unusual that some recreational items, like glasses, tobacco smoking devices like those offered by Mile High Pipe & Tobacco, or gaming system screens, are made of glass, there are others that you may not realize are actually made from glass or recycled glass. Virtual reality devices, although the screens may feel as if they are plastic, more than likely include some type of glass.

On a recent television show, Sebastian Thrun of Google demonstrated the latest technology from the electronics giant, Project Glass. The latest from Google includes special glasses that project a computer display, using glass and mirrors, onto one eye. It allows you to look things up, send messages by voice and even take pictures by blinking.


Glass has been used in art for centuries, but today’s artists are taking the concept of using glass in their artwork to an entirely new level. Carol Milne incorporates concepts of knitting, mold-making, lost-wax casting as well as kiln-casting to create what she calls Knitted Glass. Karen LaMonte creates cast-glass life-size clothing sculptures created entirely of glass while Dellene Peralta creates sculpted glass shoes.

Cathryn Shilling creates solid glass pieces using a weaving technique that makes the glass look like fabric. Jean-Pierre Canlis creates glass sculptures that look like items found in nature, like cattails or reeds, while Rashad Alakbarov creates what he calls “light paintings,” large installations of colored shards of glass hung in patterns from the ceiling.

These are just a few unique ways that glass is being used today. These ideas go beyond the simple glass window, the drinking glass on your desk, or the windshield of your car.

Difference Between Crystal and Glass

If you’ve ever wondered about the difference between crystal and glass, the answer might be summed up with one word: “fine”.

Traditional glass tends to be less malleable and workable when melted, which means finished pieces tend to be clunkier and thicker.

On the other hand, specific mineral and chemical additions can create a stronger, more malleable material; this can be crafted into thinner, finer, more elegant pieces of tableware and art. But the full answer is a little more complicated, so read on to learn more.

Quick History of the Solid Glass Types

While solid glass ingots and sheets were first produced thousands of years ago in Egypt and Mesopotamia, glassblowing was invented in Syria around 100 BCE, and modern-day glass-blowing materials and equipment such as molds, tubing,and griffin glass tools would still be recognizable to ancient glassmakers.

After the ancient process was imported to Rome, artists continued to hone their craft by experimenting with additives and procedures that would give rise to the product known as “crystal” by the fifteenth century. But describing these types of fine products as “crystal” is something of a misnomer, since true crystal is formed in nature as once-molten material cools and its molecules form a repeating pattern.

As artisans copied and refined this process in their shops over a few thousand years, Italian glassmakers experimented with new additives and created a fine, colorless glass. They named it “cristallo”, and a new luxury product was born.

The primary additive that gave man-made crystal its unique properties was originally lead, but today there are several other alternatives.

Production standards vary globally: UK standards dictate that, for a piece to be considered as fine crystal, it must contain a minimum of 24 percent mineral additives, but there are currently no such stipulations in the US. Below are a few more differences that you’ll find if you’re in the market.

Appearance of glass

Basic, traditional glass will likely have a warm-toned appearance, possibly with a small degree of opacity or dullness. Crystal tends to have a bluish tinge with a greater degree of clarity, as well as a prismatic effect or even a “sparkle” to it.

One can use a pocket blacklight to look at the phosphorescence of the piece; a greenish glow indicates a traditional glass piece, whereas a purplish or bluish hue indicates the presence of additives.

Crystal Resonance

Crystal has a very distinct resonance when tapped gently with a fork or similar metal object, or when you drag a wet finger across the rim.

When lightly tapping a standard glass piece, you may hear a chunkier sound that doesn’t have a ring to it — the sound will be more like a “tink” rather than a “ting”. Crystal pieces have a ring to them and in some cases, they are specifically made to make music.

Price of glass and crystals

You’ll want to perform some due diligence before opening your wallet. If you see a piece that seems more expensive than typical glassware, you might suspect that it’s crystal, though you’ll want to check if the item is in its original packaging.

Care and handling

You might be wondering if crystal is safe for table use. Traditional glass is non-porous and non-reactive, which makes it an excellent candidate for use in dishwashers and food and beverage storage. As these pieces are generally more affordable and perhaps sturdier, they are more suited for everyday use.

Crystal glassware, however, is more porous and therefore not suitable for dishwashers or long-term storage of beverages or food items. It tends to be finer, more delicate, and more expensive, and thus is best reserved for occasional use.

While some kinds of crystal products are lead-free, experts warn against frequent use of leaded-crystal products. And they don’t recommend storing liquids in containers like whiskey decanters for long. Lead antique pieces are best to be admired in a collection, instead.

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Nudity in paintings may signify different things with artists alluding to sensual meanings or conveying certain emotions. Nudity in this medium can be depicted to shock, elicit reactions and send out important messages. The naked human body is often showcased with emphasis on aspects such as composition, emotions, aesthetic qualities and form.

Depicting Nudity in Paintings

Nudes have been conspicuous in paintings since time immemorial and play an essential role in painting’s reputation as a medium for fine art. The interest in erotic subjects certainly exists but it is not a primary consideration. Artists characterize their work individually and viewers are at liberty to carry out their own assessments.

The nude concept continues to be controversial especially within realism. Male nudes have been arguably less prominent than female ones over time. Women have been chosen frequently as the main subjects with allusions to mythical characters. Traditional depictions of both male and female nudity have typically been restricted to portraying men as figures of strength and emphasizing reproduction and divinity for women.

Artistic Context

Lack of clothing in an artistic context usually reflects societal standards in relation to morality and aesthetics. The body has always been a prime area of interest for artists. It is represented in statues and paintings with numerous nude depictions in antiquity that is often associated with ancient Greece and mythological themes. The naked body is viewed symbolically as an extension of complex metaphors. You can find more original nude painting for sale at GalleryToday, an online art gallery.

Emotions in Nudity

When the body is in its bare form, the artist has more creative freedom to express different emotions such as anger, tension, desperation and power as well as making it easier to express movement. Contorted torsos, bulging veins and taunt muscles create a sense of ongoing movement. Exaggerations in nude paintings are used effectively to display a character’s mental state.

Painters have been inspired by nude sculpting techniques that make stories and scenes not only realistic, but emotional as well. Art students have been studying the naked form to understand how the body can be properly represented.

Artistic Skills

Being able to master the technique of painting the complex human body is regarded as an outstanding artistic skill. It expands the range for expressing human emotions. Unlike a figure that is clothed, nude images involve mastering elements like skin tone and aligning various body parts proportionately.

Studying the Body

The artist is expected to be knowledgeable about the muscle and skeletal structure as well as the body’s association with other characters and the surroundings.

Painters relish the challenge of painting bare figures and bringing out their humanity with clarity, simplicity, strength and beauty. Using artistic skills to create timeless paintings and bring anatomical forms to life is a major accomplishment.


The renaissance era was critical for eliminating the humiliation and shame that was linked to nudity. Many painters explore the topic of body image and working with subjects and bodies that stray away from the conventional prejudices and standards of beauty.

With the need for viewers to perceive emotional feelings, more artists have been compelled to go beyond facial expressions and use the entire body to convey emotions.